Friday, November 29, 2019

Leadership and Healthcare

Leadership is often associated with the business world. However, it has been acknowledged that it is crucial in any field and in any aspect of people’s lives. Healthcare is one of the fields where leadership is essential, as it has a positive impact on patients’ healing process (Laschinger, Wong, Cummings and Grau, 2014).Advertising We will write a custom assessment sample on Leadership and Healthcare specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More It is necessary to add that there is sufficient theoretical framework that can enable healthcare professionals to choose the most appropriate leadership style. Slavkin (2010) states that strict and rigid leadership styles are becoming less effective and modern healthcare professionals prefer transformational leadership styles. It is important to stress that contemporary researchers focus on emotional and personal aspects of leadership. Thus, Laschinger et al. (2014, p. 7) note that reson ant leadership is one of the most effective types of workplace empowerment. The researchers define resonant leadership as â€Å"a relationally focused leadership style† that includes â€Å"visionary, coaching, affiliative, and democratic approaches, whereas dissonant styles include pace setting and commanding† (Laschinger et al., 2014, p. 7). The researchers stress that resonant leadership styles enable leaders to create the necessary atmosphere in the workplace and decrease the amount of nurse turnover, which is essential in the period of significant shortage in nursing professionals. It is noted that healthcare leaders facilitate lower incivility and greater job satisfaction, which positively affects patients’ wellbeing and quality of services provided. Laschinger et al. (2014) note that relationships between healthcare leaders and the rest of the staff is of paramount importance for creating the value.  Slavkin (2010) also notes that proper interpersonal re lationships are crucial for creation of the appropriate atmosphere in the working place. The researcher provides brief insights into development of leadership approaches and states that command and control leadership styles are becoming less effective especially in healthcare setting. Healthcare field is characterized by high pressure and significant workload. Clearly, additional stress in the form of rigid control and numerous commands forces many healthcare professionals less motivated and productive. This is especially true for nursing professionals who have to communicate with healthcare staff, patients and their relatives. Many nurses do not handle the pressure and there is a high rate of turnover. The researcher emphasizes that effective leaders have to be more attentive to needs and expectations of the staff. It is also stated that relationally loaded leadership is important for detecting and sharing values. Notably, the researcher pays special attention to the fact that lead ership will become more creative, interdisciplinary and will be characterized by â€Å"culturally diverse collaborations† (Slavkin, 2010, p. 40).Advertising Looking for assessment on health medicine? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Hence, it is clear that interpersonal relationships, coaching and creation of rapport is seen as a potential framework for development of the leadership in the future healthcare leadership. Again, the researcher stresses that such type of leadership will make the healthcare staff feel more empowered and motivated to address the needs of patients. It is also important to remember that healthcare professionals (especially nurses) will also be able to employ some leadership methods when working with patients. Slavkin (2010) also adds that there are gaps in medical education as future healthcare professionals often lack for knowledge and skills concerning leadership. The researcher stresses that the gaps should be eliminated and medical schools include leadership in their curricula. This will enhance the quality of services provided. Such relationally loaded leadership styles are associated with emotional intelligence. Delmatoff and Lazarus (2014) state that modern leaders should be emotionally and behaviorally intelligent. The researchers claim that effective leaders should choose the most appropriate styles based on their emotions and behaviors. Thus, leaders should have emotional and behavioral self-awareness. They should also be able to be socially aware. In other words, they have to understand emotions and behavior, needs and expectations of people they lead. Delmatoff and Lazarus (2014, p. 245) argue that efficient leaders have to understand the value of using â€Å"emotionally and behaviorally intelligent style of leadership to ensure that their staff feel empowered and supported†. The researchers add that the use of this type of leadership will help create t he necessary atmosphere of trust and cooperation among the healthcare staff as well as between healthcare professionals and patients, which is crucial for effective treatment. It is also noted that healthcare staff need more training (in schools and in the working place). It can be beneficial to train the staff to make all the employees utilize the most appropriate leadership styles. Fine, Golden, Hannam and Morra (2009) provide interesting insights into the use of relationally loaded leadership styles. The researchers argue that it is possible to make this style more effective when utilizing Lean approach. Lean methodology was developed in the terrain of industry but it applicable in any sphere of life.Advertising We will write a custom assessment sample on Leadership and Healthcare specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Professionals of Toyota developed the methodology, and successful implementation of the approach suggests that it c an facilitate development of any industry or organization. Fine et al. (2009) explain that the Lean approach is based on the idea of elimination of waste from the process of production and/or service delivery. Waste can be defined as any â€Å"non-value-added steps† (Fine et al., 2009, p. 26). The researchers argue that healthcare is â€Å"an ideal environment in which to reap the benefits of Lean† (Fine et al., 2009, p. 27). The researchers identify principles or steps in the Lean approach. These are defining value, arranging by value stream, flowing, pulling and seeking perfection. In other words, healthcare leaders should understand what patients expect from them and what they need. Healthcare professionals have to make sure that these needs and expectations are met within minimum time and with maximum efficiency. Fine et al. (2009) add that this approach is not researched in the field of healthcare and needs special attention. Researchers as well as practitioners s hould develop appropriate techniques to exploit Lean approach.  In conclusion, it is necessary to note that researchers stress that modern healthcare leaders have to pay more attention to emotions and personal relationships. At that, leaders should be aware of their emotions and behaviors as well as their colleagues’ and patients’ behavior and emotions. This will enable healthcare staff to provide high-quality services as the atmosphere in the working place will be characterized by trust and support. In its turn, this will positively affect patients’ healing process, as they will also be more cooperative and trustful. Importantly, although there is significant load of research in the field of healthcare leadership, many healthcare professionals lack for the necessary knowledge and skills. Researchers note that the gap should be filled. This can be implemented through inclusion of leadership in medical schools’ curricula. Healthcare staff training will a lso be beneficial. Healthcare professionals should be aware of recent findings in the field to be able to choose the right leadership style and utilize it correctly. Reference List Delmatoff, J., Lazarus, I.R. (2014). The most effective leadership style for the new landscape of healthcare. Journal of Healthcare Management, 59(4), 245-249.Advertising Looking for assessment on health medicine? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Fine, B., Golden, B., Hannam, R., Morra, D.J. (2009). Leading lean: A Canadian healthcare leader’s guide. Healthcare Quarterly, 12(3), 26-35. Laschinger, H.K.S., Wong, C.A., Cummings, G.G., Grau, A.L. (2014). Resonant leadership and workplace environment: The value of positive organizational cultures in reducing workplace incivility. Nursing Economics, 32(1), 5-16. Slavkin, H.C. (2010). Leadership for health care in the 21st century: A personal perspective. Journal of Healthcare Leadership, 2, 35-41. This assessment on Leadership and Healthcare was written and submitted by user Ronald Nunez to help you with your own studies. You are free to use it for research and reference purposes in order to write your own paper; however, you must cite it accordingly. You can donate your paper here.

Monday, November 25, 2019

Free Essays on Reasons For Going To College

There are many factors that will affect a person’s life. The most important of’ these factors is whether or not one has a college degree. There are many reasons why obtaining a college degree has such a strong influence on one’s life. A college education can open many doors in a person’s search for a career. People that have attained a college degree are hired in at a higher pay and are considered to be much more employable. This means that a college graduate would be more likely to be offered employment than another who did not attend college or did not attain a degree. The unemployment rate for a person with less than a high school diploma is more than three times that of a person with a college degree (U.S. Department of Labor). College will also assist in preparing a person for a career in a particular field. In a vast majority of highly specialized jobs, if one does not have a college degree, there is little to no possibility of securing a career in that chosen field. College will give a person the tools to succeed in the field of their choice. These tools would not be available to most people who do not attend college. Another aspect that should be considered is the fact that people with a college degree will earn $650,000 more over their lifetime than someone who does not have a degree (U.S. Deptartment of Labor). As a person’s level of education increases, so does their income level. For example: In Massachusetts, the average income for a high school graduate is $46,523. A person who has a bachelor’s degree has an average income of $81,026. For persons with a master’s degree, the average income increases to $96,519 (U.S. Census Bureau). As one can see, there is a substantial increase in the average income between a person with no degree and one with a college degree. A person who earns a college degree will also have more knowledge at their disposal that will benefit them both at... Free Essays on Reasons For Going To College Free Essays on Reasons For Going To College There are many factors that will affect a person’s life. The most important of’ these factors is whether or not one has a college degree. There are many reasons why obtaining a college degree has such a strong influence on one’s life. A college education can open many doors in a person’s search for a career. People that have attained a college degree are hired in at a higher pay and are considered to be much more employable. This means that a college graduate would be more likely to be offered employment than another who did not attend college or did not attain a degree. The unemployment rate for a person with less than a high school diploma is more than three times that of a person with a college degree (U.S. Department of Labor). College will also assist in preparing a person for a career in a particular field. In a vast majority of highly specialized jobs, if one does not have a college degree, there is little to no possibility of securing a career in that chosen field. College will give a person the tools to succeed in the field of their choice. These tools would not be available to most people who do not attend college. Another aspect that should be considered is the fact that people with a college degree will earn $650,000 more over their lifetime than someone who does not have a degree (U.S. Deptartment of Labor). As a person’s level of education increases, so does their income level. For example: In Massachusetts, the average income for a high school graduate is $46,523. A person who has a bachelor’s degree has an average income of $81,026. For persons with a master’s degree, the average income increases to $96,519 (U.S. Census Bureau). As one can see, there is a substantial increase in the average income between a person with no degree and one with a college degree. A person who earns a college degree will also have more knowledge at their disposal that will benefit them both at...

Friday, November 22, 2019

Company analysis-- Doctors without Borders Research Paper

Company analysis-- Doctors without Borders - Research Paper Example As such, this paper seeks to evaluate the factors that can impact on the operations Doctors without Borders, a non profit organization that offers humanitarian assistance to the people in need. The paper starts by outlining the background of the organization and it will also discuss issues related to management of diversity. The paper will also provide recommendations about the measures that can be taken in order to effectively manage the organization. Background information of the organization Doctors Without Borders / Medecins Sans Frontieres (MSF) is a non profit organization which works in nearly 70 countries providing medical aid to the people in need regardless of their race, religion, or political affiliation. This is â€Å"an international independent medical humanitarian organization that delivers emergency aid to people affected by armed conflict, epidemics, natural and man-made disasters, and exclusion from health care,† (MSF, 2013). The company is comprised of more than 22  000 workers including doctors, nurses, administrators and other professional staff among others. MSF reports that â€Å"in 2009, its medical teams carried out more than 7.5 million outpatient consultations; delivered 110,000 babies; treated 1.1 million people for malaria; treated 200,000 severely and moderately malnourished children; provided 165,000 people living with HIV/AIDS with antiretroviral therapy; vaccinated 7.9 million people against meningitis; and conducted 50,000 surgeries.† Managing diversity From the statistics presented above, it can be seen that Doctors Without Borders operates in various parts of the globe and it also works with people from diverse backgrounds. However, a critical analysis of this particular case shows that the major challenge for the organization may be related to managing diversity in order to effectively carry out its work so as to be in a position to achieve the desired goals. Given that the company operates in diverse enviro nments, there are likely challenges found in these environments such as dealing with people who have different cultural backgrounds and needs. The employees who work for this organization also come from diverse backgrounds and it may be quite challenging for the responsible authorities to effectively manage the affairs of the organization in each country. In his case, the manager ought to make explicit decisions which are easily understood by all the stakeholders involved given that they come from diverse backgrounds. Conclusion and recommendations A critical analysis of the given case study shows that the main challenge that can be encountered when managing organizational environments in different parts of the globe is related to managing diversity. It is not quite easy for an expatriate manager to manage people from diverse backgrounds by virtue of the fact that these people have different cultural backgrounds and values. It may also be quite challenging to manage the logistical o perations of an organization that operates across borders. Therefore, it is recommended that the responsible authorities at the above mentioned organization should implement the following measures in order for them to effectively manage its operations. The responsible authorities should make sure that they appoint a person with knowledge about the local environment to manage the organization’

Wednesday, November 20, 2019

Part 3 Policy Choices Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2500 words

Part 3 Policy Choices - Essay Example Third, these new environmental conditions favor the further development of genetic variations within the isolated group. Over a short amount of time, which can last thousands of years in evolutionary paleontology terms, the descendants of the isolated group become a new species morphologically different from the original population (Eldredge & Gould, 1972, p. 94-95; Gould 2002, p. 766-768). As a result, organisms rarely show any gradual evolutionary change throughout their phylogeny. Instead, new species appear quite suddenly in the fossil record. Working from the theoretical insights of Eldredge and Gould, Frank Baumgartner and Bryan Jones used PE to explain their observations on public policy. Baumgartner and Jones (1 993) found that for long periods of observations on different policy subsystems, policy change rarely occurred (p. 17- 18). However, on rare occasions certain policy conditions fluctuated such as the venue for a policy debate or the public's image of a specific policy problem. Fluctuations in venue and image often led to a quick policy change that was immediately followed by additional long periods of policy stasis (Baumgartner & Jones, 1993, p. 38). As a result, Baumgartner and Jones concluded that the evolution of any public policy followed a PE pattern rather than a gradual, incremental pattern. While Frank Baumgartner and Bryan Jones owed much of their insights on PE to Eldredge and Gould, they also used previous research from agenda-setting studies, the policy subsystems literature, and social choice theory to help configure the idea of PE to existing research on public policy. By using these three concepts from social science research, Baumgartner and Jones brought a theory from evolutionary paleontology to political science. This made PE a viable model of the policy process. With the incorporation of agenda-setting, the PE model had its basic political science foundation. Political scientists classify agenda-setting as a debate among advocacy groups, agencies, policymakers, the public, the media, and any other interested organizations over the problems that should be on the active policy agenda of policymakers (Baumgartner & Jones, 1993, p. 10; Kingdon, 1995, p. 3). Once on the agenda, governmental debates over a policy problem occur and the probability of policy change increases. Therefore, agenda-setting becomes important in the PE model because it helps to describe the most fundamental part of policy change. Bringing a policy problem to the agenda is a tough process. Successful agenda-setting usually happens when the public directs the right mix of attention to policymakers on a policy problem that already has various solutions advocated by organized interests (Hunt, 2002, p. 75-76). This helps to change the image of the policy problem from the perspe ctive of policymakers. Such a change in image also causes more policymakers to consider solving the problem with new legislation. When more policymakers know more about a specific policy problem, a change in venue for debates over the problem often occurs. By moving the policy discussion from its usual venue, such as a particular Congressional committee, policy change is more likely to occur. With the interaction of changing images and venues, more people become involved in the policy process and it becomes more open and more susceptible to change. This is an important

Monday, November 18, 2019

Clinical Phlebotomy Coursework Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1250 words

Clinical Phlebotomy - Coursework Example Collected blood is then mixed by inverting it several times and correctly labeled with the patient details. The patient is given small gauze to hold over the puncture site to arrest bleeding. Great care should be exercised when handling blood bank samples since errors in blood banking lead to undesirable transfusion reactions that can be life threatening. There is also a high likely hood of clerical errors occurring since it is a multistep process. This is because blood culture samples are time sensitive due to the nature of the infection. Specimens can only be of diagnostic value (yield positive results) when collected at a time the pathogens are in the peripheral circulation. It is at this time when the samples are ordered as STAT. Contaminated blood culture is when a positive blood culture is due to normal skin flora and not the causative pathogen. Contamination occurs during sample collection and inoculation of the sample in the culture media. This, process is to be done aseptically failure to which contamination occurs. In therapeutic drug monitoring a peak is the time point when the drug concentration is high, and it is the immediately after a dose has been administered. A trough on the other hand, is when the drug concentration is low at the end of the dosage interval. Blood samples for TDM are commonly collected during the trough phase. A fasting sample for OGTT must be collected to enable correct of the result. The test is done to confirm diabetes mellitus by determining patient’s tolerability to a standard dose of glucose given during the test. Non-fasting samples are likely to give false positive results due to pre-existing high blood glucose concentration following a meal( Medtexx Medical Corporation, 2007). I would flash the IV line on one of the arms with heparin solution to avoid thrombosis. I would then discard the first

Saturday, November 16, 2019

Benefits Of Urban Regeneration

Benefits Of Urban Regeneration Urban decay, usually associated with deprived areas, tends tend to be a characteristic of poorer communes, reflecting their low earning power and susceptibility to the higher unemployment rates associated with changes in the structure of the national economy (Skifter Andersen, 2003). The a feeling that buildings are physically falling into a state of decay particularly in some areas more than others, often results in an excrescence of dilapidated and vacant buildings. By remaining vacant, buildings are generally targeted for commercial signage and vandalism unless subjected to a population change or economic restructuring (McGregor and McConnachie, 1995; Skifter Andersen, 2003). The redevelopment of decaying, run-down or underused parts of urban areas with the intention of bringing new life and economic vitality is crucial in maintaining a market position (Bolton Council, 2009). Redeveloping these structural units, however, may not be an easy task, as a set physical as well as casual mechanisms likely to be different in every area, are also accentuating the problem of urban decay. According to Skifter Andersen (2003), one of the major causes of urban decay is the decline of the local economy. The changes in the structure of the national and international economy can directly or indirectly influence the local economy as outlined in Haggetts Cumulative Decline Model (2001). Certain government intervention and planning policies with regard to the industry and alterations in the locational preferences of the industries to better equipped sites are also assumed to be among the primary causes of decline by increasing the gap between the core and periphery. Similarly, the population age structure in most Western countries is changing with an increasing number of elderly dominating the demographic chart (Commission on Growth and Development, 2008). This disinclinati on of the population is likely to remain in the highly urbanised areas resulting in a number of blight properties that are likely to fall into a state of disrepair if structural investment keeps lacking. Perhaps, following Myrdals Cumulative Causation theory (1972) might help inject vigour into the local economy from the institutional set-up (Fujita, 2004). Nonetheless, this process of urban renewal, through which environmental quality redevelopments occur in derelict urban areas, is highly contested. This chapter reviews selected literature that concerns the effects of regeneration in the urban core of a settlement with regard to the value enhancement and positive externality of building refurbishment while considering the social and economic implications. Urban Regeneration Urban regeneration most likely to take the form of public policy in order to regulate urban processes, attempts to improve the urban environment through renewal (Couch et al., 2003). Although seeming fairly simple and straightforward, Home (1982) describes the concept of urban regeneration as involving complex socio-economic, environmental and political issues, with no profession or academic disciple claiming control over it. Roberts (in Roberts and Sykes, 2000) defines urban regeneration as a vision which leads to the resolution of urban problems and which seeks to bring lasting socio-economic, physical and environmental conditions of an area that has been subject to change. Broadly defined as a process that prevents the urban fabric from starting or continuing to deteriorate by improving the urban fabric, urban regeneration is fundamental to the structure plans established by the Malta Environmental and Planning Authority in 1998 and 2006. According to the Priority Actions Programme/Regional Activity Centre (PAP/RAC, 2004) of the Mediterranean countries, the aim of urban regeneration projects as a solution to this phenomenon in developed is to promote: return to the city, revitalise the city centre, restore activity in a fiercely competitive international context, and implement initiatives to improve the quality of the environment operating in a wide sense towards a smart growth. Such systemised and planned action concerning certain parts of a town would mean injecting new vigour into an area. Skifter Andersen (2003) argues urban regeneration would transform, strengthen and recreate places to act as a catalyst for further investments for the benefit of the local community. By concentrating public resources and private investments on specifically designated area may turn an area to a great appeal (Adair et al., 2000). However, urban regeneration is not only concentrated around property-led and retail-led regeneration but also through cultural regeneration to transform the city as a form of urban recreation (Evans, 2001). According to Evans (2001), arts and cultural industries can distinguish themselves by restoring identities and economies with other lifestyles. Whilst Calxton and Siora (2008) recognise the retail sector as offering opportunities and employing a wide range of different socio-economic groups, they argue that retail-led regeneration appears to provide a key reconnection to economic opportunity by engaging in direct employment and additional investment for a community and its residents. Furthermore, Claxton and Siora (2008) sustain that the most successful developments are those supported by the local authorities where planning or economic development departments work together. On the other hand, Rubin and Taylor (2008) question the enormous institutional corporate power of certain chain stores that might have some influence on the planning system and in regeneration projects. According to them, the benefits from such regeneration are overstated as this type of regeneration creates an inverse system that extorts money out of the local economy resulting in serious consequences for small local businesses. Pitkin (1963) sustains that as an important trait within various Mediterranean communities is the urban ethos, the city is depicted as a place of cultural richness, civilisation and civic pride (Leontidou, 2000). Strengthening this argument, Florida (2003) suggested that as social ethos is becoming increasingly dominant in most entrepreneurial and growing regions, it is attracting creative people to the city and accentuating the processes of gentrification. Additionally, Ley (2003) also accentuates the importance of cultural and lifestyle of the middle class, who value the preservation of the historic core and the utilisation of exceptional commodities. Bailey et al. (2004) suggests that culture-led regeneration has only been effective when associated with commercialised identities, thus stressing the need for economic investments and retail establishments. Hiller (2000) suggests that for waterfront regeneration with transformation of the urban environment with luxurious residences a nd gentrified neighbourhoods must be create jobs through a number of office towers as well as shopping centres, included in most projects. As cities are never still, Lancaster (1995) had previously argued that they are places where people strive to overcome negative effects and create hope in the place that history has located them. According to Dunn (1998), the consumer culture might therefore encourage residents to disattach themselves from their particular area and associate themselves to the new global culture irrelevant of the location. Bailey et al. (2004), disagrees and argues that cultural forms of consumption can actively enhance and enliven local communities. Bailey et al. (2004) goes further by suggesting that it is the people who live in the city themselves have to engage in regenerating the city rather than the planning policies. Kantor et al. (1997), stresses the significance of local urban democratic conditions in creating inclusive governing that can influence the local communitys ability to participate and have a reach in the business. Gentrification As defined by Kennedy and Leonard (2001), gentrification involves the processes of reinvestment and revitalisation to enhance the physical and socio-economic components of cities. In this relationship, higher income households settle in that settle in the area, upgrade the physical and socio-economic component of lower income residences. Smith (1987b, p.463), specifically stated that the crucial point with regard to gentrification is that: à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¦it involves not only a social change but also, at the neighbourhood scale, a physical change in the housing stock and an economic change in the land and housing market. It is this combination of social, physical, and economic change that distinguishes gentrification as an identifiable process/set of processes. Furthermore, Wyly and Hammel (1999, p.716) add that the process of gentrification complements: class transformation of those parts of the city that suffered from systematic outmigration, disinvestment and neglect, or neglect in the midst of rapid economic growth and suburbanisation. Badcock (2001), argues that today the process of gentrification and restructuring have become so interrelated together that they have formed the broader transformation known as revitalisation. Furthermore, households of median and higher incomes generally value the preservation of the historic core and contribute to raising the areas ethos (Ley, 2003). Therefore, employment in the tertiary, quaternary and quinary sectors of production, usually associated with having a university degree, is a key indicator of gentrification according to Ley (2003). In other words, the post-modern lifestyles of consumption are the solution towards revitalisation of a location through the processes of gentrification. Consequently, the process of gentrification can be said to be the outcome of the range of responses to the new economic and social opportunities that arise from prior dispositions of the social classes (Bridge 2001). On the other hand, Smith and Williams (1986) were particularly concerned with displacement and the side effects the middle class is having on the lower working class through the processes of gentrification. Although the extent of the problem is not agreed upon, Sumka (1979) argues that displacement of the working class through rent increases was undoubtedly a major issue. More recently, Blomley (2004) outlines that the social mix the processes of gentrification bring with them tend to expose the working classes to several equalities in the social hierarchy as interaction between the owners and tenants in gentrified neighbourhoods seems to be limited. Slater (2006) argues that this process can lead to social segregation and isolation when trying to revitalise a neighbourhood. Yet, according to Sigworth and Wilkinson (1967) the beneficial effects to the community through gentrification outweigh the issues of social segregation which can be resolved through several policies. Ideal Scenario In a society where the absence of building care culture is increasing, prompt maintenance would help make aging buildings less problematic to rehabilitate as it is often the case that such buildings are found in a state of disrepair with various safety problems. Throughout the 1970s, many of the European countries had already started emphasise the gradual renewal process of rehabilitation rather than focusing on the massive redevelopments simultaneously (Wood, 1991). Thomas (1977), suggested that making way for redevelopment would give an opportunity to replace any substandard buildings, any clashes with regard to the land-use, as well as any environmental nuisance. Although in essence the process of redevelopment causes a lot of inconvenience as it dislocates people (Sumka, 1979; Smith and Williams, 1986; Blomley, 2004), redevelopment can help utilizing the full potential of a site as well as exploiting the beneficial effects to the community such as solving the problems related to social segregation (Sigworth and Wilkinson, 1967). Amongst the main problems that dominate the list for the issue of urban renewal, the lack of institutional planning (Adams and Hastings, 2001) and unfair reimbursements (Kam et al., 2004). This raises the question of whether it would be eloquent to redevelop rather than to rehabilitate certain properties in some areas. It was proposed that the decision making on whether to rehabilitate or redevelop is generally influe nced by six aspects namely; political, legal, technical, institutional, social and economic forces (Walker, 2002). According to Olson et al. (2001) and Hobman and Bordia (2006), the influences of the professional work background on the attitudes towards a renewal project can also make a difference. For instance, building surveyors are said to consider the structural conditions of a particular building as the most vital concepts of consideration in a regeneration process. Conversely, the town planners tend to give more importance to the impacts of the project in the visual quality and micro climate of the neighbourhood rather than the structural conditions of a building (Olson et al., 2001, Hobman and Bordia, 2006). Despite these converging views, it is evident that the implementation of an urban renewal strategy especially when done on a massive scale would include a strong financial input. This would also have to be coupled with adequate public resources, and a determined commitment to solving to the urban dereliction problems while aiming towards increasing the social and economic benefits and fostering entrepreneurial activity (Hamnet, 2000; Skifter Andersen, 2003; Calxton and Siora, 2008). In such circumstances, it is also advisable that there should be improvements to the infrastructure, the transportation system as well as the environment that should all coincide with the renewal development that has the support of all social partners (Adair et al., 2000). Yet, as such conditions rarely occur, policy makers must shape their development plans based upon the constraints they face at the particular moment in time. Williams (2006) suggested that in order to ensure a more successful project, t he ruling authority can also use its powers relating to property development to influence the planning, the infrastructure and the compulsory purchase powers together with the availability of public land assets. When trading land for example, it is not a rare occurrence that one party missing from the market forum and thus the scenario of a compulsory purchase might be required in order for the renewal project not to be brought to a halt because by the private economic forces (Williams, 2006). To redevelop or to rehabilitate? Specifically on property-led redevelopment, Harvey (1992) highlighted that the timing of redevelopment projects depend on three essential issues being; the value of the current existing use of the land resource, the current value of the best of alternative use, and the cost of rebuilding. As the use of property is not irreversible, property has the potential to be redeveloped and converted into another type or usage to suit the expected socio-economic demands at a given time (Gunnerlin, 2001). According to the structure plan issued by the Malta Planning Authority (PA) (1998), there is a need: to use land and buildings efficiently and consequently channel urban development activity into planned developed areas particularly though rehabilitation and upgrading of existing fabric and infrastructure. Notionally, if the present value of the existing use of the land resources is greater than the present value of the best alternative use, redevelopment would not take place since it would not be financially viable, and the rebuilding costs would affect the occurrence of urban renewal. This explains why sometimes redevelopment in the old, urban core is less attractive to the developers (Harvey and Jowsey, 2004). As for the option of rehabilitation, which would mean securing the existing structure, it was concluded that it would only be advantageous when a number of conditions are met (Pugh, 1991). This would mean that the service life of a building would be prolonged by another thirty to fifty years. Furthermore, the value as well as the interest rate of the existing building would also have to be high. Additionally, Pugh (1991) argues that if the direct and indirect costs of rehabilitating are considerably less than those incurred by rebuilding, then the developer would be more tempted to rehabilitate rather than redevelop. Ratcliffe (1993) also estimated that the costs of renovating a building can amount to twenty-five percent less than starting a new building project and thus making it more attractive for developers. Aikivuori (1994) points out that refurbishments may sometimes be required when there is a need for change in the land-use as well as when there is a need to increase or secur e the market value of the building. Additionally, this would also help to preserve the existing building and its externalities that may be important in inducing a culture-led regeneration. Challenges facing the renewal process Housing has long been regarded as a durable commodity (Wieand, 1999), yet, like any other physical commodity, properties are subject to deteriorate as time goes by and eventually fall into a state of dilapidation if they are not properly maintained (Burton 1933). A number of previous studies have highlighted among of the main factors that would make a building deemed for renewal would be the serviceable environment (Sohmer, 1999). Others like Rosenfeld and Shohet (1999) have formed models to determine whether and when a building should be upgraded. This helped to reduce uncertainties and serve as an aid when deciding whether to upgrade or not. Nonetheless, one should not forget that there are always a set of constraints that are likely to slow or halt the process of urban renewal. The multiple ownership of a number of properties is one of them for example (Chun To Cho and Fellows, 2000; Galea Debono, 2009). So are the limitations on the development in the urban village core through the Urban Conservation Area (UCA) which restricts certain types of redevelopment projects. Additionally, it is also likely that there may be disputes in the process of resettling those affected and disagreements on compensation issues which make it more difficult for the private developers to find a compromise with the landowners (Sumka, 1979; Smith and Williams, 1986; Blomley, 2004). Furthermore, it is also often the case that the lack of a central governing body to implement redevelopment and private developers little presumptive power, end up with the developers having fragmented, slow progress (Gordon, 2004). Positive outcomes from urban regeneration Fundamentally, the process of urban regeneration would help to contribute towards the preservation of structures of architectural value and significant historical importance (Jim, 1994). A sustainable regeneration scheme should therefore endeavour to lesson social exclusion, boost economic reintegration as well as salvage architecturally rich buildings and edifices (McGregor and McConnachie, 1995; Skifter Andersen, 2003; Bailey et al.,2004). Otherwise, an urban regeneration project can be a source of conflict and thus it might prove valuable to develop a decision making tool to facilitate the planning process as suggested by Walker (2002) and Ho et al. (2004) in figure 2.1. Figure Project facility making tool (Ho et al., 2004). Eventually, project regeneration proposals can be assessed and alterations can be made in order to achieve a higher rating for the plan which is subject to time, budgetary and other practical constraints (Ho et al., 2004). According to Kocabas, (2000a), evaluating the impact of protection planning would ideally assess outcomes against the physical, social and economic objectives. This should preserve the physical historic environment, the needs of the existing residents during the process of upgrading as well as determining whether the conservation process is economically viable (Kocabas, 2000a). On the other hand, Borja et al. (1997) showed that the socio-spatial outcomes of globalisation on urban areas varied according to the correlation between the technological and economic processes that form the core for this transformation. Whilst it is now widely accepted that no city can escape the reach of global economic and political forces (Sassen, 2000; Taylor and Walker, 2001), it is also clear that cities can upgrade their position in the global hierarchy by their strategic intervention (Clarke and Gaile, 1997). This was the case with Ireland in 1988, for example. With the help of the European Commission, Ireland reflected on the mistakes made through the demolishment of buildings in inner Dublin through the Greater Dublin Area Development Programme secured and managed the preservation of the built historical environment (Pickard, 1994). Essentially, the upgrade or upkeep of neighbourhood externalities is also thought to contribute to the migration and related change in a neighbourhoods economic status for two main reasons. Firstly, certain types of households may behave in ways that generate social capital and affluence for the neighbourhood influencing the demand for that location, thus, the process of gentrification (Ley, 2003). Likewise, certain types of households might also choose to migrate into or out of a neighbourhood based on the demographic and financial characteristics of their prospective neighbours because of the social status, irrespective of how these neighbours may behave (Rosenthal, 2008). In spite of this, it is important to recognise that raising a neighbourhoods economic status does not necessarily alleviate poverty but could simply force the existing low income residents to relocate to other areas of the locality. Jacobs (1961) argued that rather than being suffocated by urban regeneration, soc ial life should be revived, thus, the process of gentrification might not be always seen in a good light especially from those who are less affluent and other deprived sections of society (Sumka, 1979; Smith and Williams, 1986; Blomley, 2004). Therefore, building rehabilitation may garner more support as it causes less social disturbances (Needleman, 1966; DeFilippis, 2007). Achieving success through failure Amongst the good examples of successful waterfront regeneration projects that have managed to generate enough employment opportunities for the locals, Gloucester, Swansea, Cardiff and Liverpool immediately stand out in the United Kingdom (Jones and Gripaios, 2000). In these cases, a number of listed warehouses were refurbished and transformed to provide residential, office, retail, museum, marinas and restaurant facilities. Liverpools Albert Dock, for instance, has been so successful as a heritage site that was previously in a state of decay that it now receives around six million visitors yearly (Jones and Gripaios, 2000). From being a totally abandoned and neglected eyesore, the Albert Dock has now been turned into a visually pleasing environment with the most obvious and tangible manifestations of successful regeneration project in the United Kingdom. Canary Wharf in London is another successful redevelopment that even managed to generate 7,000 jobs for the locals (Daniels and Bob e, 1993). In spite of these successful cases of regeneration, the process of urban renewal still generates a great deal of heated debate especially when faced fierce opposition from the locals that fear that there would no significant improvement in their standard of living such as in the case of Canary Wharf in London. Quite rightly as Jeffrey and Pounder (2000) suggest, the physical improvement of a building is a fundamental element in achieving a successful regeneration project, however Hausner (1993), suggested that on its own it is not sufficient as the development of any project reflects the conditions and requirements of the area in which the project is located from a wider perspective. In addition to this, Moore (2002) sustains that the proactive use of this policy might even improve the local economic development and even create new working places, however, this might only be for a short while. Hemphill et al. (2004) argues that much of the research conducted in the United Kingdom ten ds to be critical as there is a persistent sentiment that urban policy has not really left many of the desired effects on the regenerated area. This had already been thought earlier as even though the inner-city redevelopments generally improve and enhance the degraded built environments, there is criticism that such projects only cater to certain sectors of society and particular locations such as waterfronts and thus these types of projects can fragment cities (Fainstein, 1994; Meyer, 1999; Marshall, 2003). Further criticism concludes that the stated goal of urban design and renewal is often forgotten as the concepts have become merely a marketing tool (Gospodini, 2002). Moreover, it is generally felt that the concept of urban renewal is too vague with the fusion of the traditional architecture, the landscape architecture, and the planning and civil engineering. As a result, urban renewal is said to be focused mainly on the marginal cosmetic aesthetics of the landscape rather than helping to sustain a better standard of living in the area (Inam, 2002). Hubbard (2006) added that the social as well as economic conditions of an area are usually worsened though the regeneration and gentrification policies that are meant to be beneficial. On a wider scale, Newman and Thornley (1996) had previously suggested that in contrast with other cities, the key European cities such as; Paris, Milan, Berlin, Frankfurt and Stockholm are underpinned by the factor of the international competitiveness rathe r than by the notion of urban policy and therefore the residents standard of living has nothing to do concept of urban renewal. Bentley (1999) went even further and argued that apart from the social, economic and environmental limitations, the concept of urban design is often manipulated by developers and public authorities to covertly hijack public space and neglect local conditions and values. Revitalisation projects targeted parts of the cities, such as decayed port areas and other post-industrial sites, for major redevelopments so that the area in effect becomes totally gentrified resulting in a residential area for the more affluent citizens rather than the whole society in general (Bentley,1999). Proprietors awareness and involvement It is evident that one of biggest barriers when it comes to building maintenance is the owners awareness that find it difficult to realise the basic forms of decay and the resulting impact on the building material (Kangwa and Olubodun, 2003). To make matters worse, when action is taken, it is often the case that an inappropriate remediation technique is applied (Leather and Mackintosh, 1994; Forrest et al., 1996). Thus, any effective renewal system must be constructed upon well informed diagnostic skill structures. Chanter and Swallow (1996) and Davidson et al. (1997) have suggested that some of the main awareness problems apart from the variations in perceptions of objects of regular maintenance include the inability to tell whether inferior products or components are used to rehabilitate the building. In addition to this, they also add that the average owner is generally unable to determine the quality of work done by the traders and cannot judge accurately the extent of skill requ ired for a particular work. In the end they argue that the absence of a referral system within the local housing communities which would act as an initial contacts for advice and general information on housing maintenance. Consequently, it is often the case that waves of building depilation later turn into the process of urban decay that has been a major problem in most developed cities (Skifter Andersen, 1995). It must be recognised that the local inhabitants are fundamentally the problem solvers and play an important and useful role not only in implementing regeneration strategies but also in maintaining the socio-economic improvement of the neighbourhood over the years. As powerlessness is central to peoples experience of poverty and exclusion, the people in general are more likely to involve themselves if they can clearly see their contribution in the city (Joseph Rowntree Foundation, 2005). Throughout the last number of years, the local citizens have also been emphasizing that new developments should retain their own characteristic and identity in order to reflect their collective memories. Public consultation meetings are no longer satisfying the citizens as they believe that a comprehensive public engagement exercise for the project is required and more channels should be provided for them to express their views on the developments (Lee and Chan, 2008). Research has shown that in the absence of government intervention, property owners are prepared to improve their buildings and edifices since it would enhance the market value of the refurbished properties provided that there is enough information for people to take sensible decisions (Holm, 2000; Gregg and Crosbie, 2001). Besides from having restored building edifices, this type of refurbishment project is estimated to increase the market price of the property which leaves a good profit after deducting the costs of the refurbishment project (Chau et al., 2003). Improvements on the buildings especially on the facades are intuitively expected to have a positive impact on properties adjacent to the building because of the improved visual quality enjoyed by the nearby residents. Likewise, unsightly externalities are created by the unsightliness of poorly maintained properties, thus, refurbishing these poor maintained buildings should reduce or even counter the negative impact (Colwell e t al., 2000; Boyle and Kiel, 2001). Nevertheless, while everyone would benefit from improving the exterior conditions of the buildings, the market value of the properties improved first would have their value depreciated by the dire condition of the neighbouring properties and thus for an individual to take the first step would not be easy. As a result, the unimproved properties would experience an increase in value as a result of the nearby investments done by the others. Consequently, this might also lead to a market failure as the refurbishment process may never take off completely resulting in an investment which is less than what was desired (Hui et al., 2007). Should more information on the enhanced market value of a refurbished building be made available, then the long-term sustainability of a rehabilitation effort would be incorporated into the urban renewal strategies easily, however, one must not forget that the effects may not be felt until a long time. In this particular scenario, the authority in charge sh ould encourage and encourage developers and owners to instigate redevelopment. Ultimately, the process of renewal is a product of an incremental decision making as owners have to decide whether to rehabilitate or redevelop their built land which is subject to facing obsoleteness (Bryson, 1997). Figure 1: Hamdi (2004) Everyone (civic society) should benefit by participating Concluding Remarks As authorities are widely considered as the ones responsible for the process of urban decay, they started to be seen as being unable to engage successfully with the private sector. With the rise of the new conservative movements, the local government started to be marginalised in favour of the private sector when it came to taking decisions (Gullino, 2008). This resulted in private sector being placed at the centre of the renewal activities as these kinds of projects are assumed to attract new financial capital (Bianchini et al., 1992; Loftman and Nevin, 1995). Despite the process of urban renewal through which envir

Wednesday, November 13, 2019

Stolen :: essays research papers

Jimmy and Ruby are the most obvious victims in Stolen, but all suffer in their different ways. Discuss The most obvious victims in a tragedy like the Stolen generation are those in whom the pain and suffering endured is visible to all. Jane Harrison’s ‘Stolen’ presents Ruby and Jimmy as the most obvious victims but not necessarily the greatest, as may be naively assumed. The remaining characters, Anne, Shirley and Sandy all suffer huge depths of despair, yet their suffering appears to lessen to some degree in the eyes of the viewer/reader due to their hope, determination and stability which in some ways assist them in attempting to resolve their problems and become reunited with their loved ones. The physical and sexual abuse experienced by Ruby and Jimmy is horrifying and obviously very visible to others. The loss that Ruby and Jimmy suffered was a loss of dignity and to the extent that they were both unable to keep fighting â€Å"I just can’t [fight] no more† or hold on to any hope of reuniting with their families because their pain was too great â€Å"they stuck a knife into me heart† The children were deceived with the hopes of being cared for â€Å"matron said they’re gunna take one of us home† and when they understood the truth they were disheartened and lost in silence â€Å" I promised not to tell† Jimmy and Ruby both led very tragic lives by the closing scene of the play, implying that perhaps they are the greatest sufferers because of their obvious pain. Jimmy the playful young boy has had his heart ripped apart by the hope â€Å"I’m finally gunna meet my mother† of finally reconnecting with his mum and the despair of her death, and takes his own life as a melancholy eccentric prison inmate â€Å"I’m going now, to be with my mother† Unlike Jimmy, Ruby has the chance to be with her family again, â€Å" Sis, we’ve come to take you home† but her mental and emotional state is beyond repair after the damage done to her, â€Å" don’t live in no home anymore† In â€Å"Ruby’s family come to visit† it appears Ruby is inevitably set to live a lonely and disjointed life†¦if she continues to even have the strength or will to live. A victim of loss, like Ruby, Shirley speaks on behalf of both children and mothers who have lost the family because of the ‘welfare’ system.

Monday, November 11, 2019

Effective Persuasion Week Six Assignment

The author did a magnificent Job to persuade my thinking toward health care system in the United States that health care should be considered as a fundamental right to all U. S. Citizens. The author's essay was easy to follow, well constructed, and straight-forward to his topic sentence. Writer had a strong introduction, supportive points, and a conclusion. The author provided enough facts to support his [her argument regarding health insurance should be accepted as basic right for all theU. S. Citizens Just like education. Health care converges are very expensive that a normal person cannot effort. I like the fact he presented in his/ her writing that even citizens with health insurance will still end up paying out of their pocket. Insurance companies more concerns about their profits than providing health coverage. There is always a waiting list or have to wait in line to see a doctor even if you are covered by insurance. The entire U. S citizens have to stand up and fight for thei r rights.I also legalized that the author did not use any I statements, which means the author is not bias. That is true that having health care system to the U. S. Citizens will save many lives and courage the health of all Americans. I will be using feedback from Written to make my persuasive essay more effective. Wrestling's feedback helps to fix some of the common grammar errors such as leaving out commas, right words choices; using awkward construction such as â€Å"his/her†, spelling check, and much more can help me to make my persuasive essay more effective.Written also recommend avoiding using first and second person such as I and You in sentences. With the help of Written my essay will be grammar error free, which will sound much better when the reader will be reading it. My essay will persuade my audience every effectively. I will make sure my essay is error free and well constructed. I will be using all sorts of sentences types in my essay to ensure my audiences do not get bored or lose his/her interest while reading my essay. I will be providing strong facts and examples to support my topic sentence.To make sure my essay is not bias I will ensure not to use gender pronouns such as â€Å"he,† â€Å"she,† â€Å"him/her,† or any of these substitutions. Use of gender pronouns is awkward in academic writing and can divert the audiences from the point you are trying to make. To fix this dilemma I will be using plural nouns such â€Å"their† or â€Å"they. † I will ensure not to use â€Å"l† statement sentences such as â€Å"l think† or â€Å"l believe† to make my essay sound opinionated and ensure to provide both side of the stories so the audience do not think the my essay is biased. By Sizing

Saturday, November 9, 2019

Financial Management: Definitions Essay

Define the following terms using your text or other resources. Cite all resources consistent with APA guidelines. Term Definition Resource you used Time value of money Explaind how a dollar received today, other things being  the same, is worth more than a dollar received a year from now. Efficient market efficient market is a market in which all the available information is fully incorporated into securities prices, and the returns investors will earn on their investments cannot be predicted. Primary versus secondary market A primary market is a market in  which new, as opposed to previously issued, securities are bought and sold for the first time. The secondary market is where all subsequent trading of previously issued securities takes place. Risk-return tradeoff investment opportunities  that have different risks and different expected rates of return that reflect those risks. Agency (principal and agent problems) The conflict of interest between the firm’s managers and its stockholders is called a principal-agent problem, or agency problem, in which the firm’s common stockholders, the owners of the firm, are the principals in the relationship, and the managers act as â€Å"agents† to these owners. Market information and security prices and information asymmetry. Through Market information you can know the prices of the different commodities in the market, the supply and the demand situation. Agile and lean principles  to be responsive to changing needs. Previous teachings Return on investment A performance measure used to evaluate the efficiency of an investment or to compare the efficiency of a number of different investments. Cash flow and a source of value Cash flow is a revenue or expense stream that changes a cash account over a given period. A source of value is a source of worth, merit or importaince Project management The planning and organization of an organization’s resources in order to move a specific task, event or duty toward completion. Outsourcing and offshoring Offshoring means getting work done in a different country. Outsourcing refers to contracting work out to an external organization. Inventory turnover A ratio showing how many times a company’s inventory is sold and replaced over a period Investopedia Just-in-time inventory (JIT) Just in time (JIT) inventory is a management system in which materials or products are produced or acquired only as demand requires Vender managed inventory (VMI) A means of optimizing Supply Chain performance in which the manufacturer is responsible for maintaining the distributor’s inventory levels. Forecasting and demand management Demand management and forecasting is recognizing all demand for goods and services to support the marketplace. Demand is prioritized when supply is lacking.

Thursday, November 7, 2019

How Search Engines Work essays

How Search Engines Work essays Search engines are among the most popular and most useful tools that the web has to offer. The vast amount of information that can be found on the internet can be accessed by using popular search engines such as: Yahoo!, Altavista, Hotbot, Excite, Lycos, Google, and many more. The importance of search engines can easily be seen since its the place on the internet we all visit to find information on just about any topic. When it comes to search engines there are three types: crawler-based, human-powered, and hybrid (a mix of crawler-based and human-powered). Crawler-based engines are among the most popular. They work using software robots called spiders or crawlers. The purpose of these crawlers is to sift through web pages and follow links within websites. The crawler revisits the page from time to time to check for any changes that may have been made. The information found by the spider is then placed into the index. The index (sometimes referred to as the catalog) stores all the information like a library. The search engine then uses specific software to sort through the index to find the most useful and relevant matches according to your query. The second type of search engine, human-powered, is based on people submitting a short summary of a site which is then used to find matches, again, based on your query. The summary of the site can be written by the author or an outside editor. The last form of search engines is the hybrid engines which combine both crawler-based and human powered engines. With companies always trying to improve, hybrid engines have become a lot more common. Now you might wonder if all search engines fit under these three categories, why is that different engines produce different results. One cause is that the indexes of the engines differ. This means that the spiders used by different engines use different techniques in searching through sites. Some crawlers search through the w...

Monday, November 4, 2019

Immigration & Ownership under EB5 Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 3250 words

Immigration & Ownership under EB5 - Essay Example Many of those families are facing the threat of deportation, while many troubled companies that were promised a boost from immigrant investors have closed their doors, leaving hundreds of workers unemployed"( Roche and Cohn, Cashing In: Immigration Official Insiders Siphon Millions Selling Green Cards To Wealthy Foreigners, Baltimore Sun).2 The impetus for the visa program came from a similar strategy in Canada that attracted millions of dollars from wealthy Hong Kong residents who looked elsewhere to settle when Britain announced that Hong Kong would merge with mainland China (We take a look at the Canadian Business Immigration Visa later in the paper).This made the American think-tank devise a strategy to lure the wealthy from around the globe to invest in the national coffer, which was suffering through an economic downturn. (Roche and Cohn, America for Sale, Cashing In: Immigration Official Insiders Siphon Millions Selling Green Cards to Wealthy Foreigners, Baltimore Sun)3. America was also looking to lure the wealthy from Hong Kong who dreaded the idea of living under communist rule in 1997. The response was lukewarm considering that this plan was patterned after highly successful programs in other countries, especially Canada and Australia. Canada's program, which began in 1986, had brought in more than $3 billion a year and created more than 40,000 jobs, which Canadian officials said was a real success. Australia, anticipating an exodus from Hong Kong brought forward their program a lot earlier. The program, begun in 1982, brought in $1.3 billion in new investment with about 10,000 settlers coming mostly from Asia, according to the Australian Embassy. There was animosity and revolt against this move to bring in settlers for a paltry sum of $1 million. Said Sen. Dale.Bumpers (D-Ark.), "allowing somebody into this country simply because he or she happens to have $1 million, either inherited, made in the drug cartel, regardless of where the money comes from" is nothing short of "selling of our souls". "One million dollars is not chump change," said St. Louis immigration lawyer George Newman. "People with that kind of money didn't get it because they are idiots," he said, and they are not going to jump into the program without a clear idea of what will happen, sums up the mood in the immigration section of INS (Al Kamen, An Investment In American Citizenship, Sep.29, 1991, The Washington Post)4. The EB-5 Immigrant Investor Visa (Pre- This is the story of Kenneth Carlsson, a man who brought with him all the wealth that he could amass to start an American dream. He, like a million before him, sought to make the United States his home. Kenneth banked on the investor visa program that was on offer for foreigners who desired to come here and invest U.S $500,000 - $1,000,000. This was seen as an avenue for the rich to walk into this country, invest in a business that would offer employment to a minimum of 10 and would

Saturday, November 2, 2019

How is modern technology used in Medical centers Essay

How is modern technology used in Medical centers - Essay Example 2 Introduction A poet, philosopher and an artist of an early 20th century named Khalil Gibran, who lived in a pre-computer era, stated that (Pasupathy 18-21) â€Å"A little knowledge that acts is worth infinitely more than much knowledge that is idle†. It is surprising that he is concerned about the knowledge management systems in the 20th century. However, this idea has become more useful if this statement is meditative in the long-term care industry. In addition, by computerizing long-term care industry a massive enhancement has been noticed. But long-term care institutions still require a lot more knowledge associated with technology in order to enhance nursing homes, progress through administration techniques, improve the medical processes and gain knowledge associated with system management (Pasupathy 18-21). The administrator of a nursing home must understand the core objective of management system and the purpose of long-term care organizations before procuring, executi ng and promoting these systems, as it will consequently aid in understanding the characteristics and features of the system (Pasupathy 18-21). ... It is made possible by the sound knowledge in health care that locate a new direction in the field of health and social care system. A 24-hours care support has been established by the NHS that provides full support to the patients, as well as to the public keeping in mind the concept of primary self-care. However, the NHS must maintain the acquisition of new technologies and innovative working practices to facilitate people with long term conditions to live a healthy life (Robinson 9-12). Likewise, health services are provided to the patients via national ICT infrastructure that is designed to support multi-channel services in order to provide 24/7 constant recommendations and knowledge regarding self-management and the management of long-term health conditions (Bradbury 309-314). Moreover, many patients find it difficult on how to find adequate solutions related to any health condition or how to contact their regular care service providers in late working hours or in some cases aft er working hours. In 2004, the problem has been aggravated for several patients due to out-of-hours (OOH) services (Bradbury 309-314). The NHS direct has made this possible for patients to get reliable and useful information through any medium such as telephone, internet, digital TV (DiTV). In addition, NHS Direct is continuously providing sound knowledge to spread awareness among the patients (Bradbury 309-314). A number of communities are using different technologies such as, point-of-care (POC) documentation and financial software, as mentioned in a long-term living trend survey ('Long-Term Living's Survey of Technology Usage', 65-65). In that survey it was concluded that the latest technology acquisition will